11 março 2007

NOSSA SENHORA DE CZESTOCHOWA



A Madona Negra é uma pintura de Nossa Senhora com o Menino Jesus, cuja lenda atribui a sua autoria ao Evangelista S. Lucas. Acredita-se que S. Lucas a pintou sobre um tampo de madeira duma mesa feita por Jesus carpinteiro. Teria sido enquanto posava para Lucas que Maria relatou-lhe os pormenores da Anunciação e da infância de Jesus que Lucas mais tarde incorporaria ao seu evangelho. A pintura apareceria novamente em 326 d.C., quando Sta. Helena a teria localizado em Jerusalém, por ocasião de uma peregrinação à Terra Santa. Ela presenteou a pintura a seu filho, o Imperador Constantino, que mandou construir para ela um santuário em Constantinopla. Numa batalha crítica contra os sarracenos, a pintura foi exibida sobre os muros da cidade, e os sarracenos foram então derrotados. O crédito da salvação da cidade foi atribuído à pintura.
Mais tarde, ela passou às mãos de Carlos Magno, que depois a presenteou ao príncipe Léo da Rutênia (Hungria). Ela permaneceu no palácio real da Rutênia até à invasão do séc. XI. O rei orou à Nossa Senhora para que auxiliasse seu pequeno exército; em resposta às suas súplicas, uma densa escuridão desceu sobre as tropas inimigas, as quais, em sua confusão, começaram a atacar-se mutuamente. A Rutênia foi salva, devido a esta intervenção. No séc. XIV, ela foi transferida para o Monte de Luz (o Santuário de Jasna Gora), na Polônia, em resposta a uma solicitação feita num sonho ao príncipe Ladislau de Opola.

Esta história legendária passou a ser melhor documentada a partir do príncipe Ladislau. Em 1382, invasores tártaros atacaram a fortaleza do príncipe em Belz. No curso deste ataque, uma seta tártara atingiu a pintura, alojando-se na garganta da Madona. O príncipe, temendo que ele próprio e a pintura famosa viessem a cair em mãos dos tártaros, fugiu durante a noite, refugiando-se na cidade de Czestochowa, onde a pintura foi alojada numa pequena igreja. A seu tempo, o príncipe fez construir um mosteiro paulino e uma igreja, a fim de abrigar em segurança a imagem. Em 1430, os hussitas invadiram o mosteiro e tentaram levar o retrato. Um dos invasores atingiu duas vezes a pintura com sua espada, mas antes de desferir uma terceira estocada, caiu ao solo em agonia e morreu. Tanto os cortes a espada como a perfuração pela seta são ainda visíveis no quadro.

Mais tarde, em 1655, a Polônia foi quase que totalmente tomada pelas forças do rei da Suécia, Carlos X. Apenas a área em torno do mosteiro remanesceu inconquistada. De algum modo, os monges lograram resistir a um cerco de quarenta dias, até que a Polônia rechaçou os invasores de todo o seu território. Após esta notável seqüência de eventos, Nossa Senhora de Czestochowa tornou-se o símbolo da unidade nacional e foi coroada Rainha da Polônia. O rei da Polônia colocou oficialmente o país sob a proteção de Nossa Senhora. Uma lenda mais recente em torno da pintura envolve a ameaça de invasão da Polônia pela Rússia. Em 1920, o exército russo foi avistado manobrando maciçamente nos bancos de areia do rio Vistula, ameaçando Varsóvia, quando uma imagem da Virgem apareceu nas nuvens sobre a cidade. As tropas russas retiraram-se à sua vista.

Ao longo dos séculos, muitos foram os testemunhos de curas e outros fenômenos milagrosos ocorridos com fiéis que peregrinaram à pintura. Ela é conhecida como "A Madona Negra" por causa da fuligem acumulada sobre a sua superfície, fruto de séculos de velas votivas queimadas junto a ela. Com o declínio do comunismo na Polônia, as peregrinações à Madona Negra aumentaram notavelmente.

No PARANÁ:

Os poloneses têm grande devoção por Nossa Senhora de Czestochowa (Matka Boska Czestochowska), a rainha da Polônia. Cada família, ao sair da Polônia, mesmo fugida, não esqueceu de levar entre as bagagens um quadro de Nossa Senhora. O dia 26 de agosto é dedicado à Nossa Senhora de Czestochowa.

Palmeira. A localidade de Santa Bárbara concentra o maior número de descendentes poloneses do município. A festa típica, realizada desde 1994, tem como proposta a valorização da cultura, bem como a vivência dos costumes e tradição dos primeiros imigrantes. A cada ano aumenta o número de fiéis que participam do culto religioso em louvor à Nossa Senhora de Czestochowa, desfrutam da gastronomia típica, apreciam o folclore e se divertem com as brincadeiras polonesas, além de terem a oportunidade de adquirir o artesanato local e os produtos da colônia. O evento ocorre na terceira semana do mês de agosto.

São Mateus do Sul. No município, a Braspol, juntamente com a população de origem polonesa de Água Branca, faz festa em louvor a Nossa Senhora de Czestochowa desde 1991. Tudo se originou com o senhor Francisco Toporowicz, quando doou um quadro de Nossa Senhora, trazido da Polônia por seus avós, à igreja polonesa daquela comunidade. Os poloneses organizaram uma grande carreata que conduziu o quadro até à centenária igreja, que foi entronizado, durante a missa. Aconteceram na seqüência festejos populares, com comida típica, música e danças folclóricas. Desde então, acontece a já tradicional festa de “Czestochowa Paranska” (Czestochowa do Paraná), sempre no último domingo de agosto. A partir de 2003, o quadro de Nossa Senhora de Czestochowa passou a visitar as comunidades, sendo recebido com muita devoção pelos fiéis. Ele permanece dois dias em cada comunidade, onde o povo reza e canta em polonês durante as celebrações. No dia da festa é organizada uma grande carreata para levar de volta o quadro à igreja polonesa de Água Branca.

Our Lady
of Czestochowa



Holy Mother of Czestochowa,
Thou art full of grace, goodness and mercy.
I consecrate to Thee all my thoughts,
words and actions - my soul and body.
I beseech Thy blessings and
especially prayers for my salvation.
Today, I consecrate myself to Thee,
Good Mother, totally - with body and
soul amid joy and sufferings
to obtain for myself and
others Thy blessings on this earth and
eternal life in Heaven.
Amen.

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